What is 4-Androstenedione ?
4-Androstenedione is used to increase the production of the hormone
testosterone to enhance athletic performance, increase energy, keep
red blood cells healthy, enhance recovery and growth from exercise,
and increase sexual desire and performance.
because of the ability of different parts of the body to convert it
into the hormones, testosterone andoestrogen, which exert many
effects on the body.
In females, the outer part of the adrenal glands (known as the
cortex) and the ovaries release 4-androstenedione into the
bloodstream where it is converted to provide around half of all
testosterone and almost all of the body's oestrone, a form of
oestrogen. Although the testes produce large amounts of
4-androstenedione in males, they secrete little of this into the
blood and, instead, rapidly convert it into testosterone within the
testes. The adrenal glands also produce 4-androstenedione in men,
but this contribution is swamped by the testes' overwhelming
production of the other androgenic hormone, testosterone.
4-Androstenedione is the common precursor of male and female sex
hormones. Some 4-Androstenedione is also secreted into the plasma,
and may be converted in peripheral tissues to testosterone and
4-Androstenedione can be synthesized in one of two ways. The
primary pathway involves conversion of 17-hydroxypregnenolone to
dehydroepiandrosterone by way of 17,20-lyase, with subsequent
conversion of dehydroepiandrosterone to 4-Androstenedione via the
enzyme 3-β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase. The secondary pathway
involves conversion of 17-hydroxyprogesterone, most often a
precursor to cortisol, to 4-androstenedione directly by way of
17,20-lyase. Thus, 17,20-lyase is required for the synthesis of
4-androstenedione, whether immediately or one step removed.
The production of adrenal 4-Androstenedione is governed by ACTH,
whereas production of gonadal 4-Androstenedione is under control by
gonadotropins. In premenopausal women, the adrenal glands and
ovaries each produce about half of the total
4-androstenedione(about 3 mg/day). After menopause,
4-androstenedione production is about halved, due primarily to the
reduction of the steroid secreted by the ovary. Nevertheless,
4-androstenedione is the principal steroid produced by the
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